Enhanced Efficiency Fertilisers (EEFs) are designed to improved nutrient use efficiency by minimising nutrient losses. EEFs comprise controlled release and, for nitrogen fertilisers, urease or nitrification inhibitor stabilised fertilisers.

The research focuses on identifying key drivers of EEFs performance in agricultural systems in Australia, where there is high temporal and spatial variations in climatic conditions, and diverse soils, agricultural industries and land management practices.

The potential for EEFs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, particularly nitrous oxide (N2O) and the indirect greenhouse gas ammonia (NH3), are also under investigation.


  • Improving the efficiency, profitability and environmental friendliness of nitrogen fertilizers Funded by: Incitec Pivot Limited, 2006-continuing
  • Enhanced efficiency fertilizers as mitigation tools for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from intensive agricultural systems in Australia Funded by: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Grains Research Development Corporation (GRDC), 2009-2012. Part of the National Nitrous Oxide Research Program (NORP)
  • Enhanced efficiency fertilisers for agricultural sustainability and environmental quality Funded by: ARC and IPL

Research Group Contact Information

Name and Honorifics: Dr Helen Suter, 
Title: Research Fellow (Greenhouse Gas)
Dept: Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne
Email: helencs@unimelb.edu.au
Phone: +61 3 8344 0179


Research Students

  • Humaira Sultana: EEFs for agricultural production including under elevated CO2.
  • Timothy Huggins: The environmental, economic and social impacts of applying dicyandiamide on a dairy farm in south-western Victoria.


Suter, H.C., Pengthamkeerati, P., Walker, C. and Chen, D. (2011) Influence of temperature and soil type on inhibition of urea hydrolysis by N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide in wheat and pasture soils in Southeastern Australia, Soil Research 49: 315-319.

Deli Chen, Helen C. Suter, Arshad Islam, Robert Edis (2010) Influence of nitrification inhibitors on nitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from a clay loam soil fertilized with urea, Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42: 660-664

Chen, D., Suter, H., Islam, A, Edis, R, Freney, J. and Walker, C. (2008) Prospects of improving efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen in Australian agriculture; a review of enhanced efficiency fertilizers, Australian Journal of Soil Research: 46: 289-301.

Relevant links